# UG Courses

**Core Courses **

**PHP100 | Physics Laboratory, 2 (0-0-4) | ****Prerequisite:**** Nil**** **

List of Experiments: 1. Coupled pendulum, 2. Study of rectifier and filter circuits, 3. measurements of magnetic field using Helmholtz coil, 4. Measurement of Planck’s constant using photoelectric effect and LED, 5. Quantum analog, 6. Measurement of Curie temperature 7. Newton’s Ring, 8. Spectrometer experiments with prisms and gratings, 9. Polarimeter, 10. Biprism, 11. Fabry-Perot Interferometer, 12. Diffraction of light from single slit and double-slit. Experiment 1 belongs to mechanics, experiment 2 belongs to electronics, experiment 3 belongs to electricity and magnetism, experiments 4 and 5 belongs to modern physics, experiment 6 belongs to condensed matter physics, and the rest of the experiments belong to optics.

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**PHL101 | Electromagnetics, 4 (3-1-0) | ****Prerequisite:**** Nil**** **

Gauss’ law in vector form and application to electrostatics, Electric polarization, electric permittivity, Displacement vector, Laplace’s equation and Poisson’s equation and solutions in simple situations; Amperes law, Magnetization, Faraday’s law of induction, Equation of continuity; Displacement current, Maxwell’s equations; electromagnetic waves in dielectrics; reflection and refraction of electromagnetic waves, polarization, transmission lines and metal waveguides; Special theory or relativity, Michelson Morley experiment, Lorentz transformations, time dilation, length contraction and velocity addition.

**PHL102 **| **Quantum Physics, 4 (3-1-0) **| **Prerequisite:**** Nil**** **

Particles and Waves in classical mechanics; need for quantum mechanics (Planck’s law of blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, Raman effect specific heat of solid); atomic stability and Bohr’s atomic theory. Double-slit experiment with light; matter wave, de-Briglie hypothesis, Davisson-Germer experiment. Quantum states, Hilbert space, operators, expectation value; Schrodinger equation (time-independent and time-dependent), stationary states; uncertainty principle; postulates of quantum mechanics. Schrodinger equation in 1-dimension: particle in a box, concept of quantum numbers; step potential; potential barrier: scattering and tunneling; potential well: bound states; harmonic oscillator. Continuous symmetry: translational and rational symmetry, generator and angular momentum operators; discrete symmetry: parity, lattice translation symmetry, time-reversal symmetry. Schrodinger equation in higher dimension: charged particle in uniform magnetic field; hydrogen atom, degeneracy. Stern-Gerlach experiment, spin, Zeeman effect. Bra-ket notation. Harmonic oscillator in operator and Bra-ket notation.

**PHL103 **| **Classical Mechanics, 4 (3-1-0) **| **Prerequisite:**** Nil**** **

Constraints, virtual work and D’Alemberts principle; generalized coordinates, Hamilton’s principle, Lagrange’s equation; Cyclic coordinates, conservation laws. Central force and effective potential; Kepler’s problem. Scattering of particles by a central force. Rutherford’s law. Non-inertial frames; centrifugal and coriolis force. Rigid body motion; Euler’s theorem; moment of inertia tensor and principal axes; Euler’ equations of motion; precession and nutation of a symmetric top; Euler’s angles. Oscillation: damped and forced oscillation, Q-factor; small oscillation, nature of equilibrium and normal modes. Hamilton’s equation of motion; principle of least action. Canonical transformations, poisson’s brackets, Liouville’s theorem. Both the Newtonian and lagrangian approach would be presented, wherever necessary.

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**PHL104 **| **Optics and Lasers, 4 (3-1-0) **| **Prerequisite:**** Nil**** **

Plane waves and spherical waves; Interference: two beam and multiple beam interference; Michelson, Sagnac, Fabry Perot interferometers; Diffraction: Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction by rectangular and circular apertures; Resolution of optical instruments; Fourier optics and spatial frequency filtering; Fresnel diffraction: Diffraction of a Gaussian beam; Polarization and polarization components; Basics of lasers, Einstein coefficients, population inversion and optical amplification; Threshold for laser oscillation; Optical resonators, stability condition, transverse and longitudinal modes; Mode selection; Q-switching and mode locking; Properties of laser beams; Types of lasers, Some lasers applications.

**PHL105 **| **Mathematical Physics for Engineers, 3 (3-0-0) **| **Prerequisite:**** Nil**** **

Complex Algebra and Calculus. Representation of functions using infinite series. Special function representations using Hypergeometric series expansions. Partial differentiation and the chain rule, Taylor's theorem for a function of many variables. Vector algebra and calculus. Matrices and Linear Algebra. Eigenvalues, eigenfunctions and the normal modes of a system of coupled oscillators. Solution of PDEs using Separation of Variables and the series solutions of the resulting ODEs. Fourier Series, Fourier Transforms and Laplace transforms with application to the solution of differential equations.

**Elective Courses **

**PHL451 **** **| **Thermal and Statistical Physics, 4 (3-1-0) **|Prerequisite: " Knowledge of Quantum Mechanics"** **

Elements of Thermodynamics:- Laws of thermodynamics, entropy, thermodynamic potentials and Maxwell relations; Elementary probability theory:- Bionomial, Poissons and Gaussian distributions, introduced via the random walk problem, central limit theorm and its significance; Kinetic theory of gases:- Averages and distributions of molecules in a gas, random walk and Brownian motion, random walk and diffusion; Statistical basis for thermodynamics:- Macrostates and microstates, postulates of statical mechanics; Gibb’s Paradox; Elements of ensemble theory:- Partition function, rules of calculation through microcanconical and grandcanonical ensemble, applications to systems of ideal gas molecules, paramagnetic spins, harmonic oscillators, etc.; Quantum statistical mechanics:- Bose-Einsetein, Fermi-Dirac and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics; their utility in Bose-Einstein condensation, black body radiation, etc.

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**PHL452 **** **| **Physics of Materials, 4 (3-1-0) **| **Prerequisite:****"****Knowledge of Quantum Mechanics"**

Brief review of essential concepts of quantum mechanics, Classical and Quantum distribution functions and their comparison, Free electron theory, Origin of energy bands in solids, Density of states, E-k diagrams, Brillouin zones, Effective mass, Metals, semimetals, semiconductors and insulator and resistivity of metals, Semiconductors: Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors, Fermi level, Temperature and carrier concentration variation of Fermi level, Metal-semiconductor junction, p-n junction, tunnel diode, solar cell and LED, Superconductivity; Zero resistance, critical temperature, current and field, isotope Effect, Type-I and II Superconductors, London penetration depth and coherence length, BCS Theory (qualitative), Josephson Junctions.

**PHL453 **| **Fundamentals of Experimental Techniques, 3 (3-0-0) **| **Pre-requisite: Nil**

Error analysis and data reduction methods; presentation of physical quantities, classification and propagation of errors, probability distributions, graphical handling and fitting functions. Vacuum, cryogenics; vacuum chamber, types of pumps, gauges, controls and leak detection techniques, basic of cryogenics. Thin film deposition and characterization techniques: basic idea of thin film deposition, structural and compositional analysis (XRD, SPM, SEM, TEM and EDAX), electrical characterizations (Four Probe, Hall Effect)

**PHL454 Fundamentals of Nuclear Energy, 3 (3-0-0) ****Pre-requisite: Nil**

Natural and artificial radioactivity, Elementary nuclear processes, Energetics of fission and fusion reactions, Cross-sections and resonances, Fissionable and fertile isotopes, Neutron budgets per fission, Light water, heavy water and graphite reactors, World nuclear energy production and status of India, World reserves of uranium and thorium, Plutonium, reprocessing and proliferation, Half lives of fission decay products and actinides made by neutron capture Nuclear waste management, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, Molten sodium breeders, Generation-IV reactors, Fast neutron production and fission-fusion hybrids reactors.

**PHL456 **| **Mathematical Physics for Engineers, 3 (3-0-0) **| **Pre-requisite: Nil**

Ordinary derivatives of vectors, space curves, Partial derivatives of vectors, Differentials of vectors, Concept of gradient, divergence and curl, Ordinary integration of vectors, Line integral, surface integral and volume integrals, Green’s theorem, Gauss’s divergence theorem, Strokes’ theorem and their applications, Differential equations, series method of solutions (Frobenius), Legendre’s differential equations, Bessel’s differential equations, Hermit’s differentia equations, generating function, spherical harmonics, orthogonal properties & recurrence relations, Linear operators and matrices, Eigenvalues and eighenvectors, orthogonal polynomials, elements of complex analysis, Laplace transforms, Fourier analysis.

**PHL457 **| **Engineering Photonics, 3 (3-0-0) **| **Pre-requisite: Nil**

Introduction to wave optics, wave – particle duality of light, wave equation for light. Light in dielecteic materials, polarization in materials, normal and anomalous dispersion of light, the concept of refractive index. Light reflection / refraction, Snell’s law and total internal reflection, Goos-Hanchen shift, Light at a planar interface, and optical coatings. Introduction to wave guides, step and graded-index waveguide, modes in wave guides, strip and channel waveguides, wave guide couplers and devices including directional couplers and optical switch, electro and acoustro-optic waveguide, phase and amplitude modulators, Introduction to Fiber-optics communications and devices. Light emission process, spontaneous and stimulated emission. Einstein A and B coefficients, concepts of laser, laser beam parameters and properties, laser threshold and gain of the laser, line broadening and laser line – width. CW and pulsed lasers, mode locking and Q-switching, laser applications, laser cooling and trapping of atoms. Light transport and emission in nanostructures, concept of photonic band gap, photonic cavities, light localization, nano-waveguides and nano-lasers.

**PHL458 **| **Physics and Application of Nanomaterials, 3 (3-0-0) **| **Pre-requisite: Nil**

Physics of 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D confinement; Density of states and Surface plasmons; Excitons in nanomaterials and Coulomb blockade; Size and surface dependence of physical; electronic; optical; magnetic; catalysis and mechanical properties. Nanoparticles growth using homogenous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation. Fundamental of evaporation-dissolution growth; vapour-liquid solid; vapour-solid and vapour-solid-solid growth mechanisms; control the size of nanowires; template bases synthesis; tunable growth of nanowire; nanotubes and nanoflute; Fundamental of thin film growth; Thermodynamics of nucleation and growth; kinetics process in nucleation and growth; growth models and superlattice; Carbon nanomaterials; nanofullerences; nanotubes; graphene; nanodiamond; coreshell nanostructures; nanoflute. Characterization of nanomaterials and application to Molecular and nanoelctronics; biological application of nanomaterials; band gap engineering; nanomechanics; nanowires based hazardous chemical sensors; 1-D nanomaterials based mass sensors; antenna and laser and solar cells.